Research data can take many forms across the fields of research covered by journals and books published by Springer Nature. Research data include data produced by the authors (“primary data”) and data from other sources that are analysed by authors in their study (“secondary data”). Research data include any recorded factual material that are used to produce the results in digital and non-digital form. This includes tabular data, code, images, audio, documents, video, maps, raw and/or processed data.
The data sharing policies of our journals in general concern the minimal dataset that supports the central findings of a published study.