Open access (OA) refers to a free, unrestricted online access to research outputs such as journal articles and books.
OA content is open to all readers with no access-related fees.
For detailed information about open access publishing for authors, please refer to our website.
If you are interested in our journal policies related to open access, please visit Open access policies for journals.
Please note that not all Springer Nature journals follow the gold open access publishing model. Please check individual journal websites to check the type of open access publishing a journal adheres to.